HyperText Markup Language - HTML References

In May 1998, the W3C HTML working group started working on the next generation of HTML, with aim to a series of specifications defining XHTML - Extensible HTML. XHTML 1.0: The Extensible HyperText Markup Language — A Reformulation of HTML 4 in XML 1.0 — became W3C Recommendation in January 2000. XHTML 1.0 is the current W3C's recommendation for the latest version of HTML, following on from earlier work on HTML 4.01, 4.0, 3.2, and 2.0. The XHTML specification just redefinines HTML4 as an application of XML, focused on differences and compatibility issues between XHML 1.0 and HTML 4. The effective definition of HTML general structure, its elements and attributes, basic data types and styles, are part of the HTML 4.01 specification.

XHTML 1.0 provides the basis for a family of document types that extend and/or subset XHTML, in order to support a wide range of new devices and applications. Read more in the HTML Activity Statement.

A brief history of HTML4 and XHTML:

  • 26 July 2006: the eighth public Working Draft of XHTML 2.0 has been published.
  • 1 August 2002: XHTML 1 specification revised and published as XHTML 1.0 Second Edition.
  • 26 January 2000: XHTML 1.0 Recommendation launched.
  • 24 December 1999: HTML 4.01 published, an update for HTML 4.0 incorporating editorial corrections and bug fixes for problems detected since HTML 4.0 became a Recommendation.
  • 05 December 1998: first working draft for XHTML 1.0, redefining HTML 4 in XML.
  • 24 April 1998: HTML 4.0 Specification Revised.
  • 18 December 1997: the HTML 4.0 Specification published as Recommendation.
  • 8 July 1997: initial announce by W3C for the HTML 4.0 specification as a preliminary version (working draft).


Introduction & Tutorials

In Portuguese

  • Tutorial HTML do ICMC-USP
    Mantido pelos webmasters do Instituto de Ciências Matemáticas e de Computação (ICMC) da Universidade de São Paulo (USP) - São Carlos. Originalmente criado por Maria Alice Soares de Castro. Introdução, HTML Básico (também para download), HTML Avançado, Imagens, Interação.
  • Guia de Iniciacao ao HTML, tradução livre do "A Beginner's Guide to HTML" do NCSA, por José de Albuquerque Moreira da UNB.
  • Building Your Site
    By Locaweb. Articles, tutorials and links on home page creation, Web development tools, Web servers, programming and databases for the Web.
  • HTML: Criando páginas na WWW, tutorial da USP.

Specifications & Complete References

Quick References


DOCTYPE Switch: Strict (Standards) × Quirks CSS Modes

Character Set & Character Encoding

FavIcon - Favorites Icon

Other References

  • Using inline frames (iframe elements)
    Using inline frames (iframe elements) to embed documents into HTML documents, by Jukka "Yucca" Korpela.
  • The Web Standards Project (WaSP)
    Founded in 1998, The Web Standards Project is a grassroots coalition fighting for standards that ensure simple, affordable access to web technologies for all. Standards reduce the cost and complexity of development while increasing the accessibility and long-term viability of any site published on the Web. WaSP works with browser companies, authoring tool makers, and other peers to deliver the true power of standards to the web medium.
    FAQ, Reference Charts (Color names, Character entities), HTML and XHTML Conforming Templates, Resources, Glossary.
  • The Web Robots Pages
    robotstxt.org, the home of The Web Robots Pages. This is the main source for information on the robots.txt Robots Exclusion Standard and other articles about writing well-behaved Web robots. Maintained by Martijn Koster. This information is in the public domain. The Web Robots FAQ, Robots Exclusion, The Web Robots Database (list of active robots), Robots Mailing List, Articles and Papers, Related sites.
    A Standard for Robot Exclusion: /robots.txt.
  • Robots.txt Tutorial
    By Search Engine World. Robots.txt Validator.
  • Mining Co.'s Guide to HTML
    NetLinks: Accessibility, Anti-Aliasing, CSS, Dynamic HTML, Forms, Free CGIs, Free Graphics, FTP Clients, Frames, HTML 4.0, HTTP Cookies, Learning HTML, Multimedia, Perl, Speed, Style Guides, Meta Tags, Tables, Vi the Text Editor, Web Designers, Web Hosting, Web Jobs, WebTV HTML, Writing for the Web, and more.
    Articles, Guides, Community (boards, chat, events etc.), Shopping (bookstore, marketplace, videostore).
  • Web Mastery - HTML, The Language
    Page at the HyperNews discussion Forums about Web and HTML (formerly at NCSA), includes related references